Excel shomanual ( Engine electrical system)

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ENGINE
ELECTRICAL
SYSTEM
Return To Main Table of Contents
GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
IGNITION SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
CHARGING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
STARTING SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
GENERAL
GENERAL
SPECIFICATIONS
Distributor MPI FBC
Type Contact pointless type
Advance mechanism Controlled by electronic control unit
Firing order 1 - 3 - 4 - 2
Centrifugal and vacuum type
Ignition coil MPI FBC
Type
Primary coil resistance
Secondary coil resistance
Identification No.
Diamond
Poong Sung
Dae Joon
Mold single-coil
0.8 ± 0.08 CI
12.1 ± 1.8 Kfi
F-088
PC88
DSA-117
1.2 ± 0.12D
13.7 ± 2.1 Kfl
-
PN22C
-
Spark plug (MPI, FBC)
Type
NGK
Champion
Plug gap
BUR6EA-11
BPR6ES-11
RN9YC4
1.0-1.1 mm (0.039-0.043 in.)
2 7 - 2
GENERAL
Starter motor (MPI, FBC)
Type
Rated output
Rated time
No-load characteristics
Terminal voltage
Amperage
Maximum speed
No. of pinion teeth
Pinion gap
A/T, Power Steering
Direct drive type
12V 0.9 KW
30 sec
11.5V
60A or less
6,600 rpm or more
8
0.0197-0.079 in. (0.5-2 mm)
M/T
l2V 0.7 KW
6,500 rpm or more
Alternator MPI FBC
Type
Rated output
Voltage regulator type
Regulator setting voltage
Temperature compensation
Identification No.
Melco
Mando
Battery voltage sensing
12V 75A (13.5V in case of Mando products)
Electronic built-in type
14.4 ± 0.3V
-10 ± 3 mV/°C
A2T09493
AB175015
13.5V 65A
14.7 ± 0.3V
-7 ± 3 mV/°C
-
AB165014
Battery (MPI, FBC)
Type MF 60AH-B (Maintenance-free battery)
Ampere hours (5HR) 48 Ah or more
(20HR) 60 Ah or more
Cold cranking [at -17.8°C (0°F)] 420 A or more
Reserve capacity 92 min.
Specific gravity [at 25°C (77°F)] 1.270 ± 0.01
NOTE
COLD CRANK AMPERAGE is the amperage a battery can deliver for 30 seconds and maintain a terminal
voltage of 7.2 or greater at a specified temperature.
RESERVE CAPACITY RATING is the amount of time a battery can deliver 25A and maintain a minimum
terminal voltage of 10.5 at 26.7°C (80°F).
2 7 - 3
IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
IGNITION SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION
Ignition timing is controlled by the electronic control ignition
timing system. The standard reference ignition timing data for
the engine operation conditions are programmed in the memory
of the electronic control unit (ECU).
The engine conditions (rpm, load, warm-up condition, etc.) are
detected by the various sensors. Based upon these sensor
signals and the ignition timing data, signals to interrupt the
primary current are sent to the power transistor. The ignition coil
is activated, and timing is controlled this way.
TROUBLESHOOTING
Probable condition Probable cause
Engine will not start or is Incorrect ignition timing
Remedy
Adjust ignition timing
hard to start. (Cranks OK)
Ignition coil faulty Inspect ignition coil
Power transistor faulty
Distributor faulty
Inspect power transistor
Inspect distributor
High tension cable faulty
Spark plugs faulty
Inspect high tension cable
Replace plugs
Ignition wiring disconnected or broken Inspect wiring
Rough idle or stalls Spark plugs faulty Replace plugs
Ignition wiring faulty
Incorrect ignition timing
Inspect wiring
Adjust ignition timing
Ignition coil faulty Inspect ignition coil
Power transistor faulty
High tension cord faulty
Spark plugs faulty
Ignition wiring faulty
Incorrect ignition timing
Spark plugs faulty
Incorrect ignition timing
Incorrect ignition timing
Inspect power transistor
Inspect high tension cord
Replace plugs
Inspect wiring
Adjust timing
Replace plugs
Adjust ignition timing
Adjust ignition timing
Engine hesitates/poor
acceleration
Poor mileage
Engine overheats
2 7 - 4
IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
IGNITION TIMING
Adjustment conditions:
Coolant temperature: 80-95°C (170-205°F)
Lamps, cooling fan, and all accessories: Off
Transaxle: Neutral (N or P for A/T)
Parking brake: On
Adjustment Procedures
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Connect timing light.
Start engine and run at curb idle speed.
Curb idle speed: 700 ± 100 rpm
With the engine stopped, connect a lead wire with alligator
clips to the terminal for ignition-timing adjustment (located
in the engine compartment), and ground it.
Start and run the engine at curb idle speed.
Check basic ignition timing and adjust if necessary.
Basic ignition timing: 5° ± 2°BTDC
If the timing is incorrect, loosen the distributor mounting nut,
and rotate the distributor until the timing is correct.
NOTE
The ignition timing will be advanced if the distributor is
turned to the left and retarded if it is turned to the right.
After adjustment, securely tighten the mounting nut.
Tightening torque: 10-13 Nm (100-130 kg.cm, 7-9 lb.ft)
CAUTION
Be careful, when tightening the nut, that the distributor
does not move.
8. Stop the engine.
9. Disconnect the lead wire connected at step 3.
10. Start and run the engine at curb idle speed.
11. Check to be sure that the idling ignition timing is the correct
timing.
Actual ignition timing: 10°BTDC
2 7 - 5
IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
CHECKING IGNITION COILS
1. Measurement of the primary coil resistance.
Measure the resistance of the positive (+) terminal and
negative (-) terminal of the ignition coil.
Standard value: 0.8 ± 0.08 n
2. Measurement of the secondary coil resistance.
Measure the resistance between the ignition coil’s positive
(+) terminal and the high-voltage terminal.
Standard value: 12.1 ± 1.8 KR
POWER TRANSISTOR
1. Connect the negative (-) terminal of the 3V power supply
to terminal 2 of the power transistor; then check whether
there is continuity between terminal 3 and terminal 2 when
terminal 1 and the positive (+) terminal are connected and
disconnected.
Terminal 1 and (+) terminal Terminal 3 and terminal 2
Connected Continuity
Disconnected No continuity
2. Replace the power transistor if there is a malfunction.
CHECKING SPARK PLUG
Inspection and Cleaning
1. Disconnect the spark plug cable from the spark plug.
NOTE
Pull on the spark plug cable boot when removing the spark
plug cable, not the cable, as it may be damaged.
2. Using a plug spark wrench, remove all of the spark plugs
from the cylinder head.
CAUTION
Take care not to allow contaminants to enter through the
spark plug holes.
3. Check the spark plugs for the following:
1) Broken insulator
2) Worn electrode
3) Carbon deposits
4) Damaged or broken gasket
5) Condition of the porcelain insulator at the tip of the spark
plug
2 7 - 6
IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
4. Check the spark plug gap using a wire gap gauge, and adjust
if necessary.
Standard value: 1.0-1.1 mm (0.039-0.043 in.)
5. Re-insert the spark plug and tighten to the specified torque.
If it is overtorqued, damage to the threaded portion of
cylinder head might result.
Spark plug: 20-30 Nm (204-306 kg.cm, 15-21 lb.ft)
Analyzing Spark Plug
Engine conditions can be analyzed by the tip deposits near the
electrode.
Condition Dark deposits White deposits
Description o Too rich a fuel o Too lean a fuel mixture
mixture o Advanced ignition timing
o Low air intake o Insufficient plug tightening
2 7 - 7
IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
SPARK PLUG TEST
(When engine can be cranked)
Connect the spark plug to the high tension cable. Ground the
outer electrode (main body), and crank the engine. In the
atmosphere, only short sparks are produced because of the small
discharge gap. If the spark plug is good, however, sparks will
occur in the discharge gap (between the electrodes). In a
defective spark plug, no sparks will occur because of a leak
through the insulation.
CHECKING SPARK PLUG CABLES
1. Check the cap and outer shell for cracks.
2. Measure the resistance.
Unit: KO
No.1 No.2 No.3 No.4
Resistance 10.1 11.8 11.8 14.2
NOTE
Resistance should not be higher than 10,000~ per foot
of cable. If resistance is higher, replace the cable.
2 7 - 8
IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF COMPONENTS
TORQUE Nm (kg.cm, lb.ft)
DISTRIBUTOR
Removal
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
2. Remove the two distributor cap retaining clips and move cap
to one side.
3. Disconnect the lead wire connector.
4. Remove the distributor mounting nut and remove the
distributor assembly.
Installation
1. Turn the crankshaft so that No.1 piston cylinder is at top
dead center.
2. Align the distributor housing and gear mating marks.
3. Install the distributor in to the engine while aligning the fine
cut groove (or protection) of the distributor’s installation
flange with the center of the distributor installation stud.
DISASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLY OF DISTRIBUTOR
DISASSEMBLY
1. Lightly clamp the distributor in a vise equipped with soft
jaws.
2. Pull off the rotor from the rotor shaft.
3. Remove the packing rubber.
4. Lift off the cover.
5. Remove the rotor shaft by using a driver.
6. Remove the disc and spacer.
7. Disconnect the lead wire connector.
8. Lift off the plate and unit by removing the three mounting
screws.
2 7 - 1 0
IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
9.
10.
11.
12.
Remove the shaft bearing tightening screws.
Make a position identification mark (for the driven gear) on
the distributor shaft.
Place the driven gear on a soft base (wooden block) to
prevent damaged.
Punch out the roll pin by using a pin punch.
INSPECTION OF CAP & ROTOR
After checking the following, repair or replace if a problem is
found.
1. There must be no cracking in the cap.
2. There must be no damage to the cap’s electrode or the
rotor’s electrode.
3. There must be no carbon tracking.
4. Clean away any dirt from the cap and rotor.
REASSEMBLY
Distributor Shaft
After coating the shaft with a small amount of engine oil insert
it into the housing.
CAUTION
Do not use solvent or similar products.
Driven Gear
1. Align the driven gear with the mark made at the time of
disassembly, and install the gear to the distributor shaft.
2. When aligning the driven gear’s mating mark and the
housing’s mating mark, make sure that notch “A” at the
shaft end is at the position shown in the figure, and then
align the roll pin hole and drive in a new roll pin.
CAUTION
Drive in the roll pin so that the slits are at a right angle
relative to the shaft.
2 7 - 1 1
IGNITION SYSTEM (MPI)
Disc
Insert the disc into the sensor part of the pick up unit and install
in alignment with the spacer.
CAUTION
The disc’s slits must not be restricted.
Cover
Install the cover so that the cover’s indentation “A” is aligned
with the housing’s notch “B”.
2 7 - 1 2
IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
IGNITION TIMING
Adjustment conditions:
Coolant temperature: 80-95°C (170-205°F)
Lamps and all accessories: Off
Transmission: Neutral (N or P for A/T)
Parking brake: On
Adjustment Procedures
1. Connect tachometer and timing light.
2. Start engine and run at curb idle speed.
Curb idle speed : 700 ± 50 rpm
3. Check basic ignition timing and adjust if necessary.
Basic ignition timing : 5° ± 1oBTDC
4. To adjust ignition timing, loosen the distributor mounting nut
and rotate the distributor until the timing is correct.
5. After adjustment, securely tighten the mounting nut.
CHECKING SPARK PLUG
Inspection and Cleaning
1.
2.
3.
Disconnect the spark plug cable from the spark plug.
NOTE:
Pull on the spark plug cable boot when removing the spark
plug cable, not the cable, as it may be damaged.
Using a plug spark wrench, remove all of the spark plugs
from the cylinder head.
CAUTION:
Take care not to allow contaminants to enter through the
spark plug holes.
Check the spark plugs for the follows:
1) Broken insulator
2) Worn electrode
3) Carbon deposits
4) Damaged or broken gasket
5) Condition of the porcelain insulator at the tip of the spark
plug.
2 7 - 1 3
IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
SPARK PLUG TEST
(when engine can be cranked)
Connect the spark plug to the high tension cable. Ground the
outer electrode (main body), and crank the engine. In
atmosphere, only short sparks are produced because of the small
discharge gap. If the spark plug is good, however, sparks will
occur in the discharge gap (between the electrodes). In a
defective spark plug, no sparks will occur because of a leak
through the insulation.
CHECKING SPARK PLUG CABLES
1. Check the cap and outer shell for cracks.
2. Measure the resistance.
No.1 No.2 No.3 No.4
Resistance 10.1 11.8 11.8 14.2
NOTE:
Resistance should not be higher than 10,000~ per foot of
cable. If resistance is higher, replace the cable.
2 7 - 1 4
IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
4. Check the spark plug gap using a wire gap gauge, and adjust
if necessary.
Standard value : 1.0-1.1 mm (0.039-0.043 in.)
5. Re-insert the spark plug and tighten to the specified torque.
If it is overtorqued, damage to the threaded portion of
cylinder head might result.
Spark plug : 20-30 Nm (204-306 kg.cm, 15-21 Ib.ft)
Analyzing Spark Plug
Engine conditions can be analyzed by the tip deposits near the
electrode.
Condition Dark deposits White deposits
Description o Too rich a fuel o Too lean a fuel mixture
mixture o Advanced ignition timing
o Low air intake o Insufficient plug
tightening
2 7 - 1 5
IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
DISTRIBUTOR
COMPONENTS
1. Breather
2. Cap
3. Contact carbon
4. Rotor
5. Cable assembly
6. Ground wire
7. Igniter
8. Spring pin
9. Signal rotor
10. Breaker base
11. Vacuum controller-Dual diaphragm type
12. Rotor shaft
13. Spring retainer
14. Governor spring
15. Governor weight
16. Distributor shaft
17. Oil seal
18. Packing
19. Housing
20. O-ring
21. Washer
22. Driven gear
23. Pin
2 7 - 1 6
IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
REMOVAL
1. Disconnect battery ground cable.
2. Disconnect high tension cable and spark plug cables from
distributor.
3. Disconnect wiring harness from the distributor lead wire.
4. Disconnect vacuum hoses from vacuum controller.
5. Remove distributor mounting nut and remove distributor
assembly from engine cylinder head.
DISASSEMBLY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Lightly clamp distributor in a vise equipped with soft jaws.
Remove retaining clips and lift off distributor cap and seal
ring.
Pull off rotor from rotor shaft.
Remove two vacuum controller attaching screws.
Remove link of controller from pin on the breaker base, then
remove vacuum controller.
6. Remove two screws and remove igniter.
7. Remove lead wire (black).
8. Remove signal rotor shaft tightening screw and two breaker
plate retaining screws.
9. Remove signal rotor shaft and breaker plate assembly.
2 7 - 1 7
IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
10. Remove signal rotor shaft from signal rotor.
11. Remove two spring retainers with pliers and then remove
two governor spring.
12. Remove two governor weights.
13. Mark location of drive gear on distributor shaft.
14. Place drive gear on soft base (wood block) so that roll pin
can be removed.
15. Using a pin punch, remove roll pin.
16. Remove drive gear and washer.
17. Remove distributor shaft from housing.
REASSEMBLY
1. Clean and inspect all parts.
2. Install shaft into housing.
3. Install drive gear into distributor shaft at previously marked
location. Then install new roll pin.
2 7 - 1 8
IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
4. Install governor weights on the governor plate.
5. Install governor springs and spring retainer.
6. Install signal rotor shaft into distributor shaft.
7. Install breaker plate to housing. Fit the breaker plate so that
the projection (A) fits into the groove (8).
8. Tighten two breaker plate retaining screw.
9. Install signal rotor to rotor shaft. Fit the signal rotor so that
the spring pin fits on the rotor shaft.
10. Install ignition to breaker plate and install two screws.
11. Connect one end of lead wire to igniter attaching screw and
other end to breaker plate.
2 7 - 1 9
IGNITION SYSTEM (FBC)
12. Adjust air gap between signal rotor and pick-up of igniter.
Air gap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.8 mm (0.03 in.)
13. Connect vacuum control link to breaker plate and tighten two
vacuum controller screws.
14. Install rotor to rotor shaft.
15. Install seal ring and distributor cap to housing and set the
retaining clips.
IGNITION COIL
Inspection
1. Using a circuit tester, measure resistance. An open or short
circuited coil should be replaced.
[Standard value]
Primary coil resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 n
Secondary coil resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13.7 K0
External resistor resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.35 a
2 7 - 2 0
CHARGING SYSTEM
CHARGING SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION
The charging system includes a battery, an alternator with a
built-in regulator, and the charging indicator light and wires. The
alternator has six built-in diodes (three positive and three
negative), each rectifying AC current to DC current. Therefore,
DC current appears at alternator “B” terminal.
In addition, the charging voltage of this alternator is regulated
by the battery voltage detection system. The main components
of the alternator are the rotor, stator, rectifier, capacitor, brushes,
bearings and V-ribbed belt pulley. The brush holder contains a
built-in electronic voltage regulator.
TROUBLESHOOTING
Symptom Probable cause Remedy
Charging warning
indicator does not
light with ignition
switch “ON” and
engine off.
Fuse blown.
Light burned out.
Wiring connection loose.
Electronic voltage regulator faulty.
Charging warning
indicator does not
go out with engine
running.
(Battery requires
frequent recharging).
Discharge battery.
Drive belt loose or worn.
Battery cables loose, corroded or worn.
Fuse blown.
Fusible link blown.
Electronic voltage regulator or alternator
faulty.
Wiring faulty.
Drive belt loose or worn.
Wiring connection loose or open circuit.
Fusible link blown.
Poor grounding.
Electronic voltage regulator or alternator
faulty.
Battery life.
Check fuses.
Replace light.
Tighten loose connections.
Replace voltage regulator.
Adjust tension or replace drive belt.
Repair or replace cables.
Check fuses.
Replace fusible link.
Test alternator.
Repair wiring.
Adjust tension or replace drive belt.
Tighten loose connection or repair
wiring.
Replace fusible link.
Repair.
Test alternator.
Replace battery.
Overcharge Electronic voltage regulator faulty. Replace voltage regulator.
Voltage sensing wire faulty. Repair wire.
2 7 - 2 1
CHARGING SYSTEM
INSPECTION OF CHARGING SYSTEM
VOLTAGE DROP TEST OF ALTERNATOR OUTPUT
WIRE
This test determines whether or not the wiring between the
alternator “B” terminal and the battery (+) terminal is good by
the voltage drop method.
Preparation
1. Turn the ignition switch to “OFF”.
2. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
3. Disconnect the alternator output lead from the alternator “B”
terminal.
4. Connect a DC ammeter (0 to 100A) in series to the “B”
terminal and disconnected the output lead. Connect the (+)
lead of the ammeter to the “B” terminal and the. (-) lead
to the disconnected output wire.
NOTE
Use a clamp type ammeter that can measure current
without disconnecting the harness. The reason is that
when checking a vehicle that has a low output current due
to poor connection of the alternator “B” terminal, such a
poor connection is corrected as the “B” terminal is
loosened and a test ammeter is connected in its place. As
a result, causes for the trouble may not be determined.
5. Connect a digital voltmeter between the alternator “B”
terminal and battery (+) terminal. Connect the (+) lead wire
of the voltmeter to the “B” terminal and the (-) lead wire
to the battery (+) terminal.
6. Connect the battery ground cable.
7. Leave the hood open.
Test
1. Start the engine.
2. Turn on the headlamps and adjust the engine speed so that
the ammeter reads 20A and read the voltmeter under this
condition.
Result
1. It is okay if the voltmeter indicates the standard value.
Standard value: 0.2V max.
2. If the voltmeter indicates a value that is larger than the
standard value, poor wiring is suspected. In this case check
the wiring from the alternator “B” terminal to the fusible link
to the battery (+) terminal. Check for loose connections, color
change due to an overheated harness, etc. Correct them
before testing again.
2 7 - 2 2
CHARGING SYSTEM
3. Upon completion of the test, set the engine speed at idle.
Turn off the head lamps and the ignition switch.
4. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
5. Disconnect the ammeter and voltmeter that have been
connected for testing.
6. Connect the alternator output wire to the alternator “B”
terminal.
7. Connect the battery ground cable.
OUTPUT CURRENT TEST
This test judges whether or not the alternator gives an output
current that is equivalent to the nominal output.
Preparation
1. Prior to the test, check the following items and correct as
necessary.
1) Check the battery installed in the vehicle to ensure that
it is in good condition*. The battery checking method is
described in “BATTERY”.
NOTE
*The battery that is used to test the output current
should be one that has been partially discharged. With
a fully charged battery, the test may not be conducted
correctly due to an insufficient load.
2) Check the tension of the alternator drive belt. The belt
tension check method is described in the section
“COOLING”.
2.
3.
4.
Turn off the ignition switch.
Disconnect the battery ground cable.
Disconnect the alternator output wire form the alternator “B”
terminal.
5. Connect a DC ammeter (0 to 100A) in series between the
“B” terminal and the disconnected output wire. Be sure to
connect the (-) lead wire of the ammeter to the
disconnected output wire.
NOTE
Tighten each connection securely, as a heavy current will
flow. Do not rely on clips.
6.
7.
Connect a voltmeter (0 to 20V) between the “B” terminal and
ground. Connect the (+) lead wire to the alternator “B”
terminal and (-) lead wire to a good ground.
Attach an engine tachometer and connect the battery ground
cable.
8. Leave the engine hood open.
2 7 - 2 3
CHARGING SYSTEM
Test
1. Check to see that the voltmeter reads the same value as the
battery voltage.
If the voltmeter reads 0V, and open circuit in the wire
between the alternator “B” terminal and battery (-)
terminal, a blown fusible link or poor grounding is suspected.
2. Start the engine and turn on the headlights.
3. Set the headlights to high beam and the heater blower
switch to HIGH, quickly increase the engine speed to 2,500
rpm and read the maximum output current value indicated
by the ammeter.
NOTE
After the engine startup, the charging current quickly
drops. Therefore, the above operation must be done
quickly to read the maximum current value correctly.
Result
1. The ammeter reading must be higher than the limit value.
If it is lower but the alternator output wire is in good
condition, remove the alternator from the vehicle and test it.
Limit value:
52.5 A min . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75A alternator (MPI)
45A min. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .... 65A alternator (FBC)
NOTE
1) The nominal output current value is shown on the
nameplate affixed to the alternator body.
2) The output current value changes with the electrical
load and the temperature of the alternator itself.
Therefore, the nominal output current may not be
obtained. If such is the case, keep the headlights on
to cause discharge of the battery, or use the lights of
another vehicle to increase the electrical load.
The nominal output current may not be obtained if the
temperature of the alternator itself or ambient
temperature is too high.
In such a case, reduce the temperature before testing
again.
2. Upon completion of the output current test, lower the engine
speed to idle and turn off the ignition switch.
3. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
4. Remove’ the ammeter and voltmeter and the engine
tachometer.
5. Connect the alternator output wire to the alternator “B”
terminal.
6. Connect the battery ground cable.
2 7 - 2 4
REGULATED VOLTAGE TEST
The purpose of this test is to check that the electronic voltage
regulator controls voltage correctly.
Preparation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Prior to the test, check the following items and correct if
necessary.
1) Check the battery installed on the vehicle to see that it
is fully charged. For battery checking method, see
“BATTERY”.
2) Check the alternator drive belt tension. For belt tension
check, see section, “COOLING”.
Turn ignition switch to “OFF”.
Disconnect the battery ground cable.
Connect a digital voltmeter between the “S(L)” terminal of
the alternator and ground. Connect the (+) lead of the
voltmeter to the “S(L)” terminal of the alternator. Connect
the (-) lead to good ground or the battery (-) terminal.
Disconnect the alternator output wire from the alternator “B”
terminal.
Connect a DC ammeter (0 to 100A) in series between the
“B” terminal and the disconnected output wire. Connect the
(-) lead wire of the ammeter to the disconnected output
wire.
Attach the engine tachometer and connect the battery
ground cable.
Test
1. Turn on the ignition switch and check to see that the
voltmeter indicates the following value.
Voltage: Battery voltage
If it reads 0V, there is an open circuit in the wire between
the alternator “S(L)” terminal and the battery (+), or the
fusible link is blown.
2. Start the engine. Keep all lights and accessories off.
3. Run the engine at a speed of about 2,500 rpm and read the
voltmeter when the alternator output current drops to 10A
or less.
2 7 - 2 5
CHARGING SYSTEM
Result
1. If the voltmeter reading. agrees with the value listed in the
Regulating Voltage Table below, the voltage regulator is
functioning correctly. If the reading is other than the
standard value, the voltage regulator or the alternator is
faulty.
Regulating Voltage Table
Voltage regulator ambient Regulating voltage V
temperature °C (°F) 75A alternator 65A alternator
-20 (-4) 14.2-15.4 14.4-15.6
20 (68) 13.9-14.9 14.2-15.2
60 (140) 13.4-14.6 13.8-15.1
80 (176) 13.1-14.5 13.6-15.0
2. Upon completion of the test, reduce the engine speed to idle,
and turn off the ignition switch.
3. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
4. Remove the voltmeter and ammeter and the engine
tachometer.
5. Connect the alternator output wire to the alternator “B”
terminal.
6. Connect the battery ground cable.
2 7 - 2 6
CHARGING SYSTEM
ALTERNATOR
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
TORQUE : Nm (kg.cm, lb.ft)
1. Disconnect the negative terminal from the battery.
2. Loosen the belt tension and remove the belt.
3. Raise the vehicle.
4. Remove the mud guard-LH.
5. Disconnect the alternator B+ terminal wire.
6. Remove the alternator assembly.
7. Installation is the reverse order of removal.
2 7 - 2 7
CHARGING SYSTEM
COMPONENTS (75A)
1. Pulley
2. Seal
3. Rotor assembly
4. Rear bearing
5. Bearing retainer
6. Front bearing
7. Front bracket
8. Stator
9. Plate
10. Voltage regulator and brush holder
11. Brush
12. Brush spring
13. Slinger
14. Rectifier
15. Rear bracket
2 7 - 2 8
CHARGING SYSTEM
COMPONENTS (65A)
1. Pulley
2. Seal
3. Rotor assembly
4. Rear bearing
5. Bearing retainer
6. Front bearing
7. Front bracket
8. Stator
9. Terminal
10. Plate
11. Brush
12. Brush spring
13. Slinger
14. Rectifier assembly
15. Rear bracket
2 7 - 2 9
DISASSEMBLY
1. Remove the three through bolts.
2. Insert a flat screwdriver between the front bracket and stator
core, and pry downward.
CAUTION
1) Do not insert the screwdriver too deeply, as there is
a danger of damaging the stator coil.
2) The rear cover may be hard to remove because a ring
is used to lock the outer race of the rear bearing. To
facilitate removal of rear cover, heat just the bearing
box section with a 200-watt soldering iron.
Do not use a heat gun, as it may damage the diode
assembly.
3. Secure the rotor in a vise with the pulley side up.
CAUTION
Be careful that the vise jaws do not damage the rotor.
4. Remove the pulley nut, then remove the spring washer, then
the pulley, and then the spacer.
5. Remove the front bracket and two seals.
6. Remove the rotor from the vise.
7. Remove the brush holder screws, the rectifier screws, and
the nut from the B terminal.
8. Remove the stator assembly from the rear bracket.
9. Detach the slinger from the brush holder.
10. When the stator is to be removed, unsolder the three stator
leads to the main diodes on the rectifier.
CAUTION
1) When soldering or unsoldering, use care to make sure
that heat of soldering iron is not transmitted to the
diodes for a long period.
2) Use care that excessive force is not exerted on the
leads of the diodes.
11. When separating the rectifier from the brush holder,
unsolder the two plates soldered to the rectifier.
2 7 - 3 0
CHARGING SYSTEM
INSPECTION
Rotor
1. Check the rotor coil for continuity. Check to make sure that
there is continuity between the slip rings.
If resistance is extremely low, it means that there is a short.
If there is no continuity or if there is a short circuit, replace
the rotor assembly.
Resistance value: Approx. 3.1 fl
2. Check the rotor coil for ground. Check to make sure that there
is no continuity between slip the ring and the core.
If there is continuity, replace rotor assembly.
Stator
1. Make a continuity check on the stator coil. Check to make
sure that there is continuity between the coil leads.
If there is no continuity, replace stator assembly.
2. Check the coil for grounding. Check to make sure that there
is no continuity between the coil and the core.
If there is continuity, replace the stator assembly.
2 7 - 3 1
CHARGING SYSTEM
Rectifiers
Positive rectifier test
Check for continuity between the positive rectifier and stator coil
lead connection terminal with an ohmmeter. The ohmmeter
should read continuity in only one direction. If there is continuity
in both directions, a diode is shorted.
Replace the rectifier ‘assembly.
Negative rectifier test
Check for continuity between the negative rectifier and the stator
coil lead connection terminal. The ohmmeter should read
continuity in only one direction. If there is continuity in both
directions, a diode is shorted, and the rectifier assembly must
be replaced.
Diode trio test
Check the three diodes for continuity by connecting an ohmmeter
to both ends of each diode. Each diode should have continuity
in only one direction.
If continuity is present in both directions, a diode is defective and
the heatsink assembly must be replaced.
BRUSH REPLACEMENT
Replace the brushes if they are worn to limit line.
2 7 - 3 2
CHARGING SYSTEM
1. Unsolder the pigtail and remove the old brush and spring.
2. Install the brush spring and a new brush in the brush holder,
3. Insert the brush to where there is a space 2 to 3 mm (0.079
to 0.118 in.) between the limit line and the end of the brush
holder.
4. Solder the pigtail to the brush holder.
REASSEMBLY
Perform reassembly in the reverse procedure of disassembly. Pay
attention to the following:
Before the rotor is attached to the rear bracket, insert a wire
through the small hole in the rear bracket to lock the brush. After
the rotor has been installed, the wire can be removed.
INSTALLATION
1.
2.
3.
Position the alternator and insert the support bolt. (Do not
attach the nut.)
Push the alternator forward and determine how many
spacers (thickness: 0.198 mm) should be inserted between
the front leg of the alternator and the front case (space A
in the illustration). (There should be enough spacers so that
they do not fall out when you let go of them.)
Insert the spacers (space A in the illustration), attach the nut,
and complete the installation.
2 7 - 3 3
BATTERY (MAINTENANCE FREE TYPE)
1. The maintenance-free battery is, as the name implies, totally
maintenance free and has no removable battery cell caps.
2. Water never needs to be added to the maintenance-free
battery.
3. The battery is completely sealed, except for small vent holes
in the cover.
4. The battery contains a visual inspection indicator.
BATTERY VISUAL INSPECTION (1)
2 7 - 3 4
CHARGING SYSTEM
2 7 - 3 5
CHARGING SYSTEM
SPECIFIC GRAVITY CHECK CHART
The specific gravity of battery electrolyte changes with
temperature. Heat thins the solution and lowers the specific
gravity. Cold thickens the solution and raises the specific gravity.
A fully charged battery should have a specific gravity between
1.260 and 1.280, with the electrolyte temperature at 80°F, the
specific gravity reading must be corrected by adding 4 points
(.004) for each 10o above 80°F or subtracting 4 points for every
10o below 80°F.
For example : The hydrometer reading is 1.280, and the
electrolyte temperature reading is 10oF. By using the chart, the
specific gravity must be lowered by 0.028 points. The true
corrected reading is 1.252.
1.280 - 0.028 = 1.252
You should never take a hydrometer reading immediately after
water has been added. The water and electrolyte must be mixed
by either charging for a few minutes at a low rate or by allowing
the battery to sit for an hour.
CAUTION
A difference of 50 points (0.050) or more between one or
more cells indicates a defective battery. It should be replaced.
BATTERY CHARGE RATE
Charge method
Specific gravity
Below 1.100
1.100 - 1.130
1.130 - 1.160
1.160 - 1.190
1.190 - 1.220
Above 1.220
Slow charge (5A) Fast charge (20A)
14 hours 4 hours
12 hours 3 hours
10 hours 2.5 hours
8 hours 2.0 hours
6 hours 1.5 hours
4 hours 1.0 hours
2 7 - 3 6
BATTERY VISUAL INSPECTION (2)
1. Make sure ignition switch is in the Off position and all
accessories are Off.
2. Disconnect the battery cables (negative first)
3. Remove the battery from the vehicle.
CAUTION
Care should be taken in the event the battery case is
cracked or leaking, to protect your skin from the
electrolyte. A suitable pair of rubber gloves (not household
type) should be worn when removing the battery.
4. Inspect the battery carrier for damage caused by the loss of
acid from the battery. If acid damage is present, it will be
necessary to clean the area with a solution of clean warm,
water and baking soda. Scrub the area with a stiff bristle
brush and wipe off with a cloth moistened with baking soda
and water.
5. Clean the top of the battery with the same solution as
described in Step (4).
6. Inspect the battery case, and cover, for cracks. If cracks are
present, the battery must be replaced.
7. Clean the battery posts with a suitable battery post cleaner.
8. Clean the inside surface of the terminal clamps with a
suitable battery terminal cleaning tool. Replace damaged or
frayed cables and broken terminal clamps.
9. Install the battery in the vehicle.
10. Connect the cable terminals to the battery post, making sure
the top of the terminals are flush with the top of the post.
11. Tighten the terminal nut securely.
12. Coat all connections with light mineral grease after
tightening.
CAUTION
When batteries are being charged, an explosive gas forms
beneath the cover of each cell. Do not smoke near
batteries being charged or which have recently been
charged.
Do not break live circuits at the terminals of the batteries
being charged. A spark will occur where the circuit is
broken.
Keep all open flames away from the battery.
STARTING SYSTEM
GENERAL INFORMATION
The starting system includes the battery, starter motor, solenoid
switch, ignition switch, inhibitor switch (A/T only), connection
wires, and the battery cables.
When the ignition key is turned to the start position, current
flows and energizes the coil of the starter motor’s solenoid.
When this happens, the solenoid plunger and the clutch shift
lever are activated, and the clutch pinion engages the ring gear.
The contacts close and the starter motor cranks.
In order to prevent damage caused by excessive rotation of the
starter armature when the engine starts, the clutch pinion gear
overruns.
TROUBLESHOOTING
2 7 - 3 8
STARTING SYSTEM
STARTER
REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION
1. Disconnect the battery ground cable.
2. Remove the E.G.R. valve assembly (U.S.A. Cal. only).
3. Remove the speed meter cable.
4. Disconnect the starter motor connector and terminal.
5. Remove the starter motor assembly.
6. Installation is the reverse order of removal.
E.G.R. valve mounting bolt tightening torque:
10-15 Nm (100-150 kg.cm, 7-11 lb.ft)
STARTING SYSTEM
STARTING SYSTEM
INSPECTION (After removal)
Pinion Gap Adjustment
1. Disconnect the wire from the M-terminal.
2. Connect a 12V battery between the S-terminal and the
M-terminal.
3. Set the switch to “ON”, and the the pinion will move out.
CAUTION
This test must be performed quickly (in less than 10
seconds) to prevent coil from burning.
4. Check the pinion to stopper clearance (pinion gap) with a
feeler gauge.
If the pinion gap is out of specification, adjust by adding or
removing washers between the solenoid and the front
bracket.
Pinion Gap: 0.5-2.0 mm (0.0197-0.079 in)
Solenoid Pull-in Test
1. Disconnect the connector from the M-terminal.
2. Connect a 12V battery between the S-terminal and
M-terminal.
CAUTION
This test must be performed quickly (in less than 10
seconds) to prevent the coil from burning.
3. If the pinion moves out, the pull-in coil is good. If it doesn’t,
replace the solenoid.
Solenoid Hold-in Test
1. Disconnect the connector from the M-terminal.
2. Connect a 12V battery between the S-terminal and the body.
CAUTION
This test must be performed quickly (in less than 10
seconds) to prevent the coil from burning.
3. If the pinion remains out, everything is in order. If the pinion
moves in, the hold-in circuit is open. Replace the magnetic
switch.
STARTING SYSTEM
Solenoid Return Test
1. Disconnect the connector from the M-terminal.
2. Connect a 12V battery between the M-terminal and the
body.
CAUTION
This test must be performed quickly (in less than 10
seconds) to prevent the coil from burning.
3. Pull out the pinion and then release it. If the pinion returns
quickly to its original position, everything is in order. If it
doesn’t replace the solenoid.
Performance Test (No-load)
1. Make the no-load circuit test as shown.
2. After adjusting the rheostat until the battery voltage shown
on the voltmeter reads 11.5 volts, confirm that the maximum
amperage draw is within the specifications and that the
starter motor turns smoothly and freely.
Current : 60A or less
DISASSEMBLY
To remove the overrunning clutch from the armature shaft, the
stop ring must be removed.
Move the stop ring toward the pinion and remove the snap ring,
now the stop ring can be removed from shaft.
INSPECTION (After disassembly)
Armature Coil Ground Test
Using an ohmmeter, check to make sure that there is no
continuity between the commutator and the armature coil core.
If there is continuity, replace armature assembly.
2 7 - 4 2
STARTING SYSTEM
Armature Coil Short-Circuit Test
Test the armature coil in a growler. Replace the coil if there are
signs of a short. If the blade attached to the core vibrates while
the core is turned, the armature is shorted.
Armature Coil Open-Circuit Test
Using an ohmmeter, check for continuity between the
commutator segments. If there is no continuity, the commutator
segments are open. Replace the armature assembly.
Field Coil Open-Circuit Test
Using an ohmmeter, check the field coil for continuity. If there
is no continuity, the field coil is open. Replace the field coil
assembly.
Field Coil Ground Test
With the field coil mounted to the yoke, check for continuity
between the field coil and the yoke using an ohmmeter. If there
is continuity, replace the field coil.
2 7 - 4 3
STARTING SYSTEM
Brush
A brush worn down to the wear limit line should be replaced.
Brush Holder
Check for continuity between the (+) side brush holder and brush
holder base. If there is continuity, replace the holder assembly.
Overrunning Clutch
Inspect the pinion and spline teeth for wear or damage. Replace
if damaged. Also inspect the flywheel ring gear for damage.
Rotate the pinion. It should turn freely in a clockwise direction,
and lock when turned counterclockwise.
BRUSH REPLACEMENT
1. Remove the worn brush while taking care not to damage the
pigtail.
2. Sand the pigtail end with sandpaper to ensure a good
soldering, joint.
3. Solder the end of the pigtail.
2 7 - 4 4
STARTING SYSTEM
REAR BRACKET BUSHING REPLACEMENT
1. Before the bushing is removed, measure and record the
pressed-in position (depth) of the bushing.
2. The bushing can be removed by the use of a puller as shown
in the illustration.
3. Press a new bushing in, up to the position recorded under
Step. 1.
REASSEMBLY
1. Install the overrunning clutch to the front end of the
armature shaft.
2. Install the stop ring and the snap ring from the front end
of the armature shaft. Push the stop ring all the way toward
the snap ring.
3. When the lever is mounted to the front bracket, pay attention
to its direction. If it is mounted in a reverse direction, the
pinion will remain in an outward position and fail to operate
properly.
2 7 - 4 5
STARTING SYSTEM
INSPECTION OF CLUTCH START SYSTEM
(IGNITION LOCK SYSTEM)
Check clutch pedal
Check that pedal height, pedal freeplay and clutch pedal clevis
pin play are correct. (Refer to clutch group)
Check starter relay
Remove the starter relay and check continuity between the
terminals. If the continuity is not as specified, replace the relay.
Check ignition lock switch
1. Check for continuity between terminals when the switch is
ON (pushed).
2. Check for no continuity between terminals when the switch
is OFF (free).
2 7 - 4 6
 

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